Thursday, December 30, 2010

John Dalton

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

photo: uh.edu
John Dalton was an English physicist, meteorologist and chemist expert, pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into color blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour), atomic sign, double proportion law, dalton law, atomic sign, founder of rain cause, author, teacher, and Royal Society member. He never married because never have time for that. Born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland, England on September 6, 1766 and dies in Manchester on July 27, 1844 at 78 years old. Because founded atomic theory by scientist not theory likes Democritus that based on philosophy and speculative so Dalton mention as atomic theory father. His father was weaver and has six children. Dalton father is poor that why he can school their child till high school. At 11 years old, Dalton must drop out from school and must looked jobs for him. Dalton and his father were Quaker. Quaker or Friend is a religious movement. Most groups of Friends meet for regular worship, but the form this takes differs considerably between different Yearly Meetings and traditions, ranging from silent meetings with no leader and no fixed plan of what will happen, through to services led by a pastor with readings and hymns (similar to conventional church services). Dalton was humble child and like learning by himself so he clever than another children at his age. In the night he learn math. At 12 years old he became teacher. But his salary was very small only 5 shilling in one week. Two year later he was looking a new job. He got job as farm worker. But this job obviously not matched with he wish. At 15 years old, he became teacher again at Kendal till he got headmaster position at 27 years. Later he moved to Manchester. In this city he met John Gough, a blind philosopher and polymath from whose informal instruction he owed much of his scientific knowledge, Dalton was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the "New College" in Manchester, a Dissenting academy. Dalton stared interesting to meteorologist since 12 yeas old. Starting at that age till he dies, Dalton recorded his observation. For 57 years he recorded 200,000 observations. At 27 years old, his first book Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793) published, which contained the seeds of several of his later discoveries. A second work by Dalton, Elements of English Grammar, was published in 1801. Although Dalton's theory lost credence in his own lifetime, the thorough and methodical nature of his research into his own visual problem was so broadly recognized that Daltonism became a common term for color blindness. Examination of his preserved eyeball in 1995 demonstrated that Dalton actually had a less common kind of color blindness, deuteroanopia, in which medium wavelength sensitive cones are missing (rather than functioning with a mutated form of their pigment, as in the most common type of color blindness, deuteroanomaly). Besides the blue and purple of the spectrum he was able to recognize only one color, yellow, or, as he says in his paper,

that part of the image which others call red appears to me little more than a shade or defect of light. After that the orange, yellow and green seem one colour which descends pretty uniformly from an intense to a rare yellow, making what I should call different shades of yellow.

South Korean Grandmother Passes Driver's Exam After 950 Tries

Sunday, November 8, 2009

photo: news.sky.com
There no word for give up in life dictionary of South Korea Grandmother, Cha Sa-soon (68 years old). After 950 times tried, at the last she passed written exam to get driver's license. Cha Sa-soon has taken the written exam on a near-daily basis since April 2005. The test requires 60% to pass but Mrs Cha has repeatedly scored between 30% and 50%. The 68-year-old grandmother forks out 6,000 won in application fees every time she takes the test. After 950 tries, that amounts to more than five million won (US$ 5.000). But now she has finally passed the written exam with a score of 60, according to police official Choi Young-chul. However, Mrs Cha will not be buying a new motor just yet - she still needs to pass the driving part of the exam before she gets her license. The grandmother has become a familiar figure at the drivers' license agency in Jeonju, 130 miles (120 km) south of Seoul. To Korea Times newspaper, Cha said that driver's license she will used to operate her door-to-door vegetable business a little easier. Keep spirit and never give up, grandma.....

Christopher Latham Sholes

Wednesday, November 4, 2009

photo: mytypewriter.com
In 1875, Christopher Sholes is United States citizen with assistance from Amos Densmore rearranged the typewriter keyboard so that the commonest letters were not so close together and the type bars would come from opposite directions. Thus they would not clash together and jam the machine. The new arrangement was the "QWERTY" arrangement that typists use today. Sholes was a U.S. mechanical engineer who invented the first practical modern typewriter, patented in 1868. Sholes invented the typewriter with partners S. W. Soule and G. Glidden, that was manufactured (by Remington Arms Company) in 1873. The type-bar system and the universal keyboard were the machine's novelty, but the keys jammed easily. To solve the jamming problem, another business associate, James Densmore, suggested splitting up keys for letters commonly used together to slow down typing. This became today's standard "QWERTY" keyboard. Sholes claimed that the new arrangement was scientific and would add speed and efficiency. Sholes lacked the patience required to market the new product and sold the rights to Densmore. He, in turn, convinced Philo Remington (of rifle fame) to market the device. The first "Sholes & Glidden Type Writer" was offered for sale in 1874 but was not an instant success. A few years later, improvements made by Remington engineers gave the machine its market appeal and sales skyrocketed. Sholes spent the end of his life in ever-increasing obscurity. He continued to tinker with various inventions, but none saw the light of day. He was born February 14, 1819 in Mooresburg, Pennsylvania, and died on February 17, 1890 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Here are a few more interesting facts: The Sholes keyboard is called the QWERTY keyboard because of the ordering of the first six keys in the third row. On the original Sholes keyboard, there was no key for the number '1', because the inventors decided that the users could get by with the letter 'l'. There was no shift key, the first typewriters could only type upper case letters. The first shift key typewriter didn't appear on the market until 1878.

Lord Nelson was Back to Work Half An Hour After Losing Arm

Thursday, October 29, 2009

photo: 1.bp.blogspot.com

LONDON - Vice Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson was back to work half an hour after his arm was amputated following a hit by a musket ball in July 1797, according to journals in the National Archive. The research team from National Archives in Kew have gathered personal accounts written by surgeons at sea from 1200 journals, which showed some of the first scientific investigations into diseases such as scurvy.
According to the ‘The Independent’, a handful of journals described the outstanding speed and skill with which medics nursed Nelson back to health from surgery - twice.
At first, Nelson was hit in the right arm by a musket ball soon after stepping ashore on the Spanish island of Tenerife in July 1797. He was taken to HMS Theseus for treatment with heavy bleeding and his hand had to be amputated. It is claimed that within 30 minutes of having his right arm cut off, Nelson was again issuing orders to his men, reports the Telegraph.
On 25 July the ship’s surgeon, James Farquhar, wrote in his journal: “Compound fracture of the right arm by a musket ball passing thro a little above the elbow; an artery divided; the arm was immediately amputated.”
On 1 August Farquhar noted: “Admiral Nelson; amputated arm; continued getting well very fast. Stump looked well; no bad symptoms whatever occurred… The sore reduced to the size of a shilling in perfect good health, one of the ligatures not come away.”
Nelson was shot in the head at the Battle of the Nile in August 1798 and was rushed to HMS Vanguard. He was discharged after one month despite a gaping hole in his head. The surgeon’s log read: “Wound on the forehead over the right eye, the cranium is bare for more than an inch, the wound three inches long. Discharged 1 September. The wound was perfectly healed on the first September but as the integuments were much enlarged, I applied (every night) a compress wet with a discutient embrocation for nearly a month which was of great service.” (ANI)

Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944)

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

photo: chemheritage.org
He is American-Belgian chemical expert, doctor, professor, who invented Velox photographic paper (1893) and Bakelite (1907), an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile, and popular plastic. He was born on November 14, 1863 and died at Beacon, New York on February 23, 1944. Baekeland is a very clever student and always to be champion in his class. He finished his study in senior high school at 16 years old. Because his intelligence, he get scholarship to continued study chemistry at the University of Ghent, where he acquired a PhD summa cum laude at the age of 21. He was subsequently appointed associate professor of chemistry in 1889, and married CĂ©line Swarts, the daughter of his head of department. Then he makes traveller to France and England. He has traveller and photographed hobby . In 1889 he get scholarship to study and make traveller to United States of America for three years but Baekeland decoded to settled in that country then changed his citizenship. He became US citizen. Because his photographed hobby, he get job at photograph company. At that time for printed negative film picture to paper must used sunlight. This is not practice way especially when night, cloudy, or rain condition. This company had high dependency to sunlight. He rethink his actions and he decided to return to his old interest of producing a photographic paper that would allow good pictures to be taken in artificial light. After two years of intensive effort he perfected the process to produce the paper, which he named Velox.
In 1893, At the time the US was suffering a recession and there were no investors or buyers for his proposed new product, so Baekeland became partners with Leonardi Jacobi and established the Nepera Chemical Company in Nepera Park, Yonkers, New York. In 1899 Baekeland was invited to meet George Eastman, who immediately offered him $1,000,000 for his Velox process. Baekeland accepted at once. Some portion of that money he spent for traveller to German, and the other portion of the money he purchased "Snug Rock", a house in Yonkers, New York, and set up his own well-equipped laboratory. He started investigation in 1905. His first objective was to find a replacement for shellac (made from the excretion of lac beetles). Chemists had begun to recognize that many of the natural resins and fibers were polymers. Baekeland began to investigate the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde shellac called "Novolak" that never became a market success. He then turned to developing a binder for asbestos, which at that time was molded with rubber. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol and formaldehyde, he could produce his dreamed-of hard moldable plastic: bakelite. The official name of Bakelite is polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride. In 1910 he founded plastic pabric the General Bakelite Co and became president for 29 yaers until 1939.

Two Years Child has Same Einstein and Hawking IQ

Tuesday, October 13, 2009

photo:  flickr.com

A two years old boy child in England has IQ reached 160, equal with intelligence famous scientist likes Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking. Oscar Wrigley is the youngest boy who become Mensa member – the oldest and the best organization – that the member have high IQ in the world according to reported quoted from Xinhuanet on October 12, 2009. Wrigley that evaluated by Gifted Children’s Infromation Center at Solihull, England, has IQ 160, the highest score measured from Stanford-Binet test. He takes percentage position at 99.99 that make him become one of the brightest children in the world. John Stevenage, Mensa Chief Executive informed that Wrigley reality had already accepted join the organization at aged 2 years, 5 months, and 11 days. Wrigley has extraordinary ability. Wrigley parent said that they were known their son geniusness since Wringley aged 12 weeks. Wrigley started talk when at nine months, able memorized alphabet at 18 months, and when he reached two years old, he already had thousands word vocabulary.